The bulk density was then calculated using bulk density equation Miller and Donahue, The total porosity was estimated mathematically by applying the values of the real density and bulk density of soil in total porosity equation Miller and Donahue, The soil resistance force to cutting and consistency is influenced by the width and depth of the tillage.
This force was calculated using the following equation:. Here, F RM is the soil resistance force to cut and consistency kg f ; R S , the soil resistivity of soil kg cm -2 and D, tillage depth cm.
The natural frequency of the tillage equipments moldboard and disk plows was estimated using the Rayleigh method Thomson, The actual load was estimated by distributing the mass for both tillage equipments in accordance with the Rayleigh method Ozkose and Bagdatli, and then calculating the vertical forces that are equivalent to the soil resistance force to cut and consistency; the results are listed in Table 2.
Y represents the dimensions of the mass whose natural frequency is to be measured and it is obtained from the following equation:.
Bulk density: Bulk density and actual speed have a direct correlation with each other Table 3 , this is because as the speed increases, the coefficient of soil fragmentation by the momentum of the plow shank increases. This, in turn, leads to an increase in the cracking of earth mounds that micronize and fill the pores, thereby reducing the size and increasing the bulk density Saxton et al.
Further, from Table 3 , the bulk density for the moldboard plow M is higher than that for the disc plow D. This is because of the difference in their mechanical design; in particular, the blade and actual tillage width of the shanks are different Srivastava et al. Moreover, the bulk density for the highest tillage depth is more than that for the lowest tillage depth because the porosity increases with the depth, which, in turn, increases the density Jabro et al.
Total porosity: The total porosity decreased as the speed increased Table 4. Increasing the speed increases the coefficient of soil fragmentation due to the greater momentum of the plow shank and this, in turn, increases the cracking of the earth mounds, micronization and filling of the pores.
Further, the porosity of the disk plow is higher than that of the moldboard plow because the moldboard plow has a higher bulk density and bulk density is inversely proportional to porosity. Furthermore, as the depth increases, the porosity decreases since the fragmentation of the soil increases and this causes higher filling of the pores in the soil and reduction in the porosity Abu-Hamdeh, Soil resistance force to cut and consistency: The soil resistance force to cut and consistency increased with the actual speed Table 5 because an increase in the speed decreases the draft force that has an inverse relationship with the force Spektor and Katz, Table 5 also shows that the moldboard plow exhibited better results than the disk plow and has lower values of the soil resistance force to cut and consistency.
This is because of the differences between the mechanical designs of the two plows; the width and angle of the shank in the moldboard plow reduce the force. Finally, Table 5 indicates that the soil resistance force increased with the depth since the required draft forces increase with the tillage depth.
Vibration: Table 6 shows that vibrations increased with the actual speed because the draft force decreased; the vibration is inversely proportional to the draft force Schmidt and Tondl, Further, the vibrations of the moldboard plow are higher than that of the disk plow because of the differences in their masses and mechanical designs De-Silva, ; Kelly, Finally, the results show that increasing the depth reduces the vibration; this can be attributed to the low soil resistance as compared to the force required to overcome the inertial forces of the vibrating masses.
We conducted a study in order to compare two types of plows moldboard and disk plows in terms of certain parameters such as vibrations and soil physical properties such as bulk density. Increasing the speed 1.
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Moreover, increasing the speed reduced the draft forces and increased soil resistance force to cut and consistency The shape and angle of the disk in a disk plow caused an increase in the number of soil pores On the other hand, the vibration was minimum in the case of disc plows 48, 62 rad sec Note that this is compatible with the general rule of vibration-the more weight, the less the vibration.
Further, increase in depth reduced the size of the pores On the other hand, an increase in the depth decreased the draft force, which increased the soil resistance force to cut and consistency Therefore, this study have experimentally compared the performance of moldboard and disk plows in terms of their vibrations. Subscribe Today. Science Alert. All Rights Reserved.
Mechanics of Tillage and Traction 3(2+1)
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Then, one could design cutting tools for acceptable performance, with minimum required force inputs, without the need for repeated experiments in the laboratory or in the field. A t r i a l and error solution to simultaneous E q n. W h e n it is considered that soil mechanical properties, especially near the s u r f a c e , vary spatially in a given field by a considerable fraction of the a v e r a g e values, it is rather difficult to justify the conducting of a lengthy and expensive series of precision laboratory tests of soil strength.
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In general, the field testing devices give results which may be inherently less precise, but w h i c h can be much more numerous and can cover more locations in a field in the same time that it takes to perform just a few laboratory tests. Simulation of soil deformation around a tillage tool using computational fluid dynamics.
T ASAE 48 3 : Numerical modelling of soil stress and pressure distribution on a flat tillage tool using computational fluid dynamics. Biosyst Eng 97 3 : Experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics modeling for narrow tillage tool draft. J Terramechanics Strip-tillage effect on seedbed soil temperature and other soil physical properties.
Soil Till Res 80 : Manuwa SI, Performance evaluation of tillage tines operating under different depths in a sandy clay loam soil. The cutting of soil by narrow blades. J Terramechanics 14 2 : Mckyes E, Desir FL, Prediction and field measurements of tillage tool draft forces and efficiency in cohesive soils. Soil Till Res 4: Simulation of a soil loosening process by means of the modified distinct element method.
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Mouazen AM, Nemenyi M, Finite element analysis of subsoiler cutting in non-homogeneous sandy loam soil. Tropical maize response to nitrogen and starter fertilizer under strip and conventional tillage systems in southern Alabama. Soil Till Res 45 : Prediction of draft forces in cohesionless soil with the discrete element method. J Terramechanics 48 5 : Characteristic loading of light mouldboard ploughs at slow speeds. J Terramechanics 1 : Richards BG, Peth S, Modelling soil physical behaviour with particular reference to soil science.
Interaction between soil and a wide cutting blade using the discrete element method. Shmulevich I, State of the art modeling of soil-tillage interaction using discrete element method. Soil Till Res 1 : Cyclic variation in moldboard plow draft and its effect on implement control systems. Modelling soil-sweep interaction with discrete element method.